In forest conditions, surface runoff and soil erosion are generally low because of the surface litter cover. If the litter layer is disturbed, then runoff and erosion rates can increase by several magnitudes. Roads adversely impact forest soil productivity by directly reducing the productive area and by causing the greatest amount of soil erosion. Harvesting activities reduce surface cover, and compact the soil, leading to increased runoff and erosion. Erosion generally decreases productivity of forests by decreasing the available soil water for forest growth and through loss of nutrients in eroded sediment.
Literature Review On Soil Erosion
Literature Review Literature: Global Land Degradation | londoncensusonline.info
The Cause And Effects Of Soil Erosion?
Background Tropical forests are threatened by intensifying natural and anthropogenic disturbance regimes. Disturbances reduce tree cover and leave the organic topsoil vulnerable to erosion processes, but when resources are still abundant forests usually recover. Scope Across the tropics, variation in rainfall erosivity - a measure of potential soil exposure to water erosion - indicates that soils in the wetter regions would experience high erosion rates if they were not protected by tree cover. However, twenty-first-century global land cover data reveal that in wet South America tropical tree cover is decreasing and bare soil area is increasing. Here we address the role of soil erosion in a positive feedback mechanism that may persistently alter the functioning of disturbed tropical forests.
Economic costs of soil erosion The following questions can be asked related to the economic effects of soil erosion: 1. How high is the decrease in crop yield per cm loss of topsoil depth? Does, in fact, soil productivity decrease much further, once the original humus rich A1-horizon of the natural soil profile is gone, such as is the case in large parts of Europe with its centuries old cultural landscapes provided that sufficient rooting depth remains? What is the extent of the offsite damage caused by soil erosion around the world? How widespread is it?