Chymotrypsin is a digestive enzyme belonging to a super family of enzymes called serine proteases. It uses an active serine residue to perform hydrolysis on the C-terminus of the aromatic amino acids of other proteins. Chymotrypsin is a protease enzyme that cleaves on the C-terminal phenylalanine F , tryptophan W , and tyrosine Y on peptide chains. It shows specificity for aromatic amino acids because of its hydrophobic pocket.
Effect of pH on Enzymes
Effect of pH on Enzymes - Biology Wise
Many of the biochemical reactions in a living cell can go both ways. For example, mammalian cells both catabolize and synthesize glucose. The rates at which these reactions occur must be regulated; otherwise, energy is wasted by what is called a futile cycle carrying out opposing reactions at high rates with no net substrate flow in either direction. Remember that the Second Law of Thermodynamics states that entropy increases in a favored reaction; entropy is wasted energy in that it can't be used to carry out work.
Bread and pasta are traditionally made with wheat, which contains proteins called gluten. As you learned in the beginning of the chapter, even trace amounts of gluten can damage the digestive system of people with celiac disease. When Rania and Tui met for lunch, Rania chose a restaurant that she knew could provide her with gluten-free food because she has this disease. When people with celiac disease eat gluten, it causes an autoimmune reaction that results in inflammation and flattening of the villi of the small intestine. What do you think happens if the villi are inflamed and flattened?
Along with probiotics, digestive enzymes can play a role in supporting the digestive and immune systems. The foods we eat are composed of macronutrients, protein, fats, and carbohydrates. As these foods move through the digestive system, we extract macro- and micronutrients. Digestive enzymes break these down in order for our bodies to access these nutrients.