I think you left out the single most important difference. Your group design answers can be inferred to be useful outside of the local context. Your single study design is limited to the local context. Therefore one might say that the usefulness of single study design is inherently limited. Hi Alyric, Actually, I did cover that.
The difference between a case study and single case designs
Single-subject design - Wikipedia
In this blog I shall attempt to clear the misconceptions about single subject designs and case studies and show you a few differences between them. There are many different designs and types of experiments, but why do we need them? Can we not just conduct the experiment the way it suits it best and not have to name it differently. So in order to begin our research we have to decide who we are going to study.
Blog 1: The Difference Between a Case Study and Single-Subject Research Designs.
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Case studies are in-depth investigations of a single person, group, event or community. The common way of collecting data for this design is making observation and interviews. The content of the method contains the basic observation of the event of single participant or group. The goal of conducting a case study is, generalizing outcome of the one case study to population.